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Uzbekistan (Republic of)[1] [print]

Last edited: November 2005

 

Summary and Analysis

 

On December 9, 1992, the Supreme Council of the Republic ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Republic of Uzbekistan entered into a commitment to observe all its provisions. It is not clear if the Convention has the force of law and thus can be invoked directly.

 

The rights of parents and children are governed by articles 65‑75 of the Family Code and by the corresponding articles of the Civil Code. The Family Code establishes that parents are obliged to raise their children with due care for their physical development and their education. In order to protect the interests of the child, certain limits are placed on the exercise of those parental rights, which may not be exercised in a manner contrary to the child's best interests.

 

The Family Code prescribes that due account shall be taken of the child's personal opinion in considering issues related to the determination of paternity, changes of first name or surname and adoption matters. The child has the right to express his opinion in any proceedings affecting his interests, and also to be heard in the course of any judicial or administrative trial.

 

The Family Code also establishes the right of children to appeal to the Care and Guardianship Authorities[2] for the protection of their rights and interests, in the event that these have been breached by their parents or by persons acting in their stead. A child of the age of 14 can apply independently to the court in such cases. The care and guardianship authorities are responsible for protecting the rights and interests of children in the event of the death of parents, the deprivation or restriction of parents' parental rights, the declaration of parents as incapable, the illness or extended absence of parents, the refusal of parents to raise their children or to protect their rights and interests. The care and guardianship authorities are obliged to appoint a representative for the protection of the rights of the children in cases of disagreement between parents and children. In addition, the local authorities, the mahallya, are also responsible for providing material and moral support to children placed with the care and guardianship authorities.

 

One or both parents may be deprived of their parental rights if they refuse to perform their duties, misuse their parental rights and mistreat their children, including with the use of physical or mental violence. Deprivation of parental rights is ordered by the courts (District and municipal courts). Suits for the deprivation of parental rights may be brought by one of the parents (or persons acting in their stead) or the procurator and also by the authorities or institutions responsible for protecting the rights of minor children (care and guardianship authorities, minors' affairs commissions, orphanages and children's homes, and others). A procedure has been established under which in exceptional cases or where there is direct threat to the life or health of a child the care and guardianship authorities are entitled to take a decision on the immediate removal of a child from the child's parents or from other persons under whose care the child had been placed. 

 

According to an NGO alternative report,[3] despite a set of laws and legislative acts aimed at implementation of the Convention, there are no appropriate mechanisms developed to bring them in action. In many cases children do not report about being abused since they are not aware of their rights, or the procedure of protecting them from abuse. There is no dissemination of information about appropriate contacts, and no “hot lines” that a child can resort to in case of abuse.

 

Work of the Guardianship, Fostering and Adoption Service is sometimes confined to a mere registration of cases of abuse. This is the case because the number of staff of Guardianship, Fostering and Adoption Service is limited and not equipped by appropriate skills in social work.

 

Currently, new legislation “On Guarantees of the Rights of the Child” is in the draft stage. The Children's Parliament of Uzbekistan contributed its own version to this draft, which will be taken into consideration in the legislation process.[4]

 

Sources of Law (In Order of Authority)

 

Original Text

 

International Law

 

BOLA HUQUQLARI ÒO.G.RISIDA KONVENSIYA[5]

 

12-modda

 

1. Ishtirokchi-davlatlar o.zining qarashlarini shakllantirishga qodir bolaga ana shu qarashlarni bolaga taalluqli barcha masalalar bo.yicha erkin ifoda etish huquqini ta'minlaydilar, binobarin, bolaning qarashlariga uning yoshi va yetukligiga muvofiq munosib darajada e'tibor beriladi.

2. Ana shu maqsadda bolaga, jumladan, bolaga taalluqli har qanday sud

yoki ma'muriy muhokama paytida, bevosita, vakil yohud tegishli organ orqali milliy qonunchilikning prosessual me'yorlarida ko.zda tutilgan tartibda o.zining fikrlarini ular tomonidan eshitish imkoniyati beriladi.

 

Statutes

 

ГРАЖДАНСКИЙ КОДЕКС РЕСПУБЛИКИ УЗБЕКИСТАН[6]

 

Статья 32. Опека и  попечительство

Опека  и  попечительство  устанавливаются  для  защиты  прав   и интересов недееспособных или не полностью  дееспособных  граждан.  Опека и попечительство над несовершеннолетними устанавливаются также  в  целях их воспитания. Соответствующие этому  права  и  обязанности  опекунов  и попечителей определяются законодательством.

Опекуны и попечители выступают в защиту прав и  интересов  своих подопечных в отношениях с любыми  лицами,  в  том  числе  в  судах,  без специального полномочия.

Опека и попечительство над  несовершеннолетними  устанавливаются при отсутствии у них родителей, усыновителей,  лишении  судом  родителей родительских прав, а также в  случаях,  когда  такие  граждане  по  иным причинам  остались  без  родительского  попечения,  в  частности   когда родители уклоняются от их воспитания либо защиты их прав и интересов.

 

СЕМЕЙНЫЙ КОДЕКС РЕСПУБЛИКИ УЗБЕКИСТАН [7]

 

Статья 67. Право ребенка на защиту

 

Ребенок имеет право на защиту своих прав и законных  интересов.

Защита  прав  и  законных  интересов  ребенка  осуществляется родителями  (лицами,  их  заменяющими),  а  в  случаях,  предусмотренных настоящим Кодексом, -  органом  опеки  и  попечительства,  прокурором  и судом.

        Несовершеннолетний,  признанный  в  соответствии  с законом полностью  дееспособным  до  достижения  совершеннолетия,  имеет право самостоятельно осуществлять  свои  права  и  обязанности,  в  том  числе право на защиту.

        Ребенок имеет право на  защиту  от  злоупотреблений  со  стороны родителей (лиц, их заменяющих).

        При нарушении прав и законных интересов  ребенка,  в  том  числе при невыполнении или при ненадлежащем выполнении  родителями  (одним  из них)  обязанностей  по  воспитанию,  образованию  ребенка либо   при злоупотреблении родительскими  правами,  ребенок  вправе  самостоятельно обращаться  за  их  защитой  в  орган  опеки  и  попечительства,  а по достижении возраста четырнадцати лет - в суд.

        Лица, которым  стало  известно  об  угрозе  жизни  или  здоровью ребенка, о нарушении его прав и  законных  интересов,  обязаны  сообщить об  этом  в  орган  опеки  и  попечительства  по месту фактического нахождения  ребенка.  При  получении  таких  сведений  орган  опеки    и попечительства  обязан  принять  необходимые  меры  по  защите  прав   и законных интересов ребенка.

 

Статья 68. Право ребенка выражать свое мнение

 

        Ребенок вправе выражать свое мнение при решении в  семье  любого вопроса, затрагивающего его интересы, а также быть  заслушанным  в  ходе любого судебного или административного разбирательства.

 

Статья 74. Права и обязанности родителей по защите прав и интересов детей

 

        Защита прав и интересов детей возлагается на их родителей.

        Родители  являются  законными  представителями  своих  детей   и выступают  в  защиту их прав и интересов в отношениях  с любыми физическими и  юридическими  лицами,  в  том  числе  в  судах, без специальных полномочий.

        Родители не  вправе  представлять  интересы  своих  детей,  если органом  опеки  и  попечительства  установлено,  что  между   интересами родителей и детей  имеются  противоречия. В  случае  разногласий  между родителями и  детьми  орган  опеки  и  попечительства  обязан  назначить представителя для защиты прав и интересов детей.

 

Статья 179. Порядок назначения опекуна и попечителя

 

        Для непосредственного осуществления обязанностей по опеке  и попечительству органы  опеки  и  попечительства  назначают  опекуна  или попечителя.

        Опекуном или попечителем могут быть  назначены  совершеннолетние граждане обоего пола и только с их согласия.

        Опекун  или  попечитель  должен  быть  назначен   не  позднее месячного срока со дня,  когда  органам  опеки  и  попечительства  стало известно о необходимости установления опеки или попечительства.

        При назначении опекуна или попечителя  должны  быть  приняты  во внимание его личные  качества, способность  выполнять соответствующие обязанности,  отношения,  существующие  между  данным  лицом  и  лицом, нуждающимся  в  опеке  или  попечительстве,  а  также  желание    самого подопечного.

 

Translation

 

International Law

 

The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child[8]

Article 12

1. States Parties shall assure to the child who is capable of forming his or her own views the right to express those views freely in all matters affecting the child, the views of the child being given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child.

2. For this purpose, the child shall in particular be provided the opportunity to be heard in any judicial and administrative proceedings affecting the child, either directly, or through a representative or an appropriate body, in a manner consistent with the procedural rules of national law.

 

Statutes

 

Civil Code[9]

 

Article 32. Trusteeship and guardianship

 

Trusteeship and guardianship shall be established in order to defend the rights and interests of persons who lack dispositive legal capacity or who are not citizens with full dispositive legal capacity.

Trusteeship and guardianship over minors also shall be established for the purpose of nurturing them. The rights and duties of trustees and guardians corresponding thereto shall be determined by legislation.

Trustees and guardians shall act in defence of the rights and interests of their wards in relations with any persons, including in courts, without a special power.

A trusteeship and guardianship over minors shall be established when they have no parents or adoptive parents, the deprivation of parents by a court of parental rights, and also in instances when such citizens for other reasons are left without parental care, in particular, when the parents evade nurturing them or defending their rights and interests.

 

Family Code[10]

 

CHAPTER IV. RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF PARENTS AND MINOR CHILDREN

Part 11: Personal non-property rights of minor children

 

Section 67. The right of the child to protection

 

The child has the right to protection of his rights and legal interests.

Protection of the rights and legal interests of the child is carried out by his parents (substituting persons), and, in cases stipulated by the present code, by the body of guardianship and trusteeship, the public prosecutor, and the court.

A minor recognized in accordance with the law as fully capable before reaching legal age has the right to independently exercise his rights and responsibilities, including the right to protection.

The child has the right to protection from abuses by his parents (substituting persons).

In cases of infringement of the rights and legal interests of the child, including non-fulfillment or improper fulfillment by the parent(s) of the obligation for the upbringing and education of the child, and abuses of parental rights, the child has the right independently to turn for protection of his rights and legal interests to the body of guardianship and trusteeship, and, upon reaching 14 years of age, to the court.

Persons to whom it becomes known that there is a threat to the life or health of a child or an infringement of his rights and legal interests are obliged to inform the body of guardianship and trusteeship located in the factual residence of the child. Upon receiving such knowledge, the body of guardianship and trusteeship is obliged to take the necessary measures for the protection of the rights and legal interests of the child.

 

Section 68. The right of the child to express his opinion

 

The child has the right to express his opinion during the resolution in the family of any question affecting his interests, and also to be heard in the course of any judicial or administrative trial.

 

Part 12: Personal non-property rights and responsibilities of parents

Section 74. The rights and responsibilities of parents to protect the rights and interests of their children

 

The protection of the rights and interests of children is entrusted to their parents.

Parents are the legal representatives of their children, and they speak in protection of their rights and interests in relation to any physical or judicial bodies (persons), including in courts, without special authority (proxy, powers).

Parents do not have the right to represent the interests of their children if it is established by the body of guardianship and trusteeship that there is a contradiction between the interests of the parents and the children. In cases of disagreement (discord) between parents and children, the body of guardianship and trusteeship is obliged to appoint a representative for the protection of the rights and responsibilities of the children. 

 

Section 179. The manner of designation of a guardian and trustee

 

For the direct implementation of the responsibilities of guardianship and trusteeship, bodies of guardianship and trusteeship appoint (designate) a guardian or trustee.

Any citizen of legal age of both genders may be appointed (designated) as a guardian or trustee, and only with his or her agreement.

A guardian or trustee must be appointed (designated) no later than a month's duration from the day on which the body of guardianship and trusteeship becomes aware of the necessity of the establishment of guardianship or trusteeship.

Upon the appointment of a guardian or trustee, attention must be paid to his or her personal qualities, capability to fulfill the corresponding responsibilities, relations existing between him or her and the individual requiring guardianship or trusteeship, and likewise the wishes (desire) of the ward himself.

 

Additional Resources and Links

www.gov.uz – The government of Uzbekistan

www.press-service.uz – The press service of the President of Uzbekistan

http://www.umid.uz/Main/Uzbekistan/index.html - Information about Uzbekistan

www.cis-legal-reform.org – Law Reform in Transition States

http://lawlib.freenet.uz/laws/eng/dz.html - Legal Database

 



Endnotes

[1] This page is also available as a .pdf Document, and Word Document.

[2] Also referred to as the minors' affairs commissions in the hokimiyats.

[3] NGO Alternative Report (2001), available at www.crin.org/docs/resources/treaties/crc.28/Uzbekistan.doc, and also here, and also as .pdf Document, and also as Word Document.

[4] See http://www.unicef.org/uzbekistan/media.html for more information. 

[5] The Convention on the Rights of the Child (Uzbek text), available at http://www.unicef.org/magic/media/documents/CRC_uzbek_language_version.pdf.

[6] The Civil Code (2001) (unofficial Russian text), available at http://www.cis-legal-reform.org/document.asp?id=5237, and also here, and also as Word Document.

[7] Family code of the Republic of Uzbekistan (1998) (unofficial Russian text), available at http://www.cis-legal-reform.org/document.asp?id=395, and also here, and also as .pdf Document, and also as Word Document.

[8] G.A. Res. 44/125, U.N. GAOR, 44th Session, Supp. No. 49, U.N. Doc. A/44/736 (1989), available at http://www.ohchr.org/english/law/crc.htm.

[9] The Vinogradoff institute University College London, Civil Code of the Republic Uzbekistan, third edition, translated from Russian by W.E.Butler, 1999.

[10] Unofficial translation by a translator provided by the Jerome N. Frank Legal Services Organization.

 

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