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Forty Years of Clinical Education at Yale:
Generating New Rights, Remedies, and Legal Services

March 5-6, 2009 ? Yale Law School

Sponsored by Yale Law School, the Liman Public Interest Program,
and the Oscar M. Ruebhausen Fund

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Below are only a few of many essays addressing our topics. 
Our list is illustrative of the wealth of literature available.

Why Clinical Education in the 1970s?
   Why Clinical Education Now?

Sameer Ashar, Public Interest Lawyers and Resistance Movements, 95 CAL. L. REV. 1879 (2007).

Jane Aiken & Stephen Wizner, Teaching and Doing: The Role of Law School Clinics in Enhancing Access to Justice, 73 FORDHAM L. REV. 997 (2004).

Gary Bellow, The Limits of Humanistic Law Teaching, 53 N.Y.U. L. REV. 644 (1978).

Gary Bellow & Earl Johnson, Reflections on the University of Southern California Clinical Semester, 44 S. CAL. L. REV. 664 (1970).

Paul B. Bergman & David A. Binder, Taking Lawyering Skills Training Seriously, 10 CLINICAL L. REV. 191 (2003).

Dennis Curtis, Educating Lawyers: Clinical Programs and the Legal Profession,
Keynote Address at the World Clinical Conference, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan (Sept. 8, 2006).

Kirsten Edwards, Found! The Lost Lawyer, 70 FORDHAM L. REV. 37 (2001).

Daphne Eviatar, Clinical Anxiety, LEGAL AFFAIRS (Nov./Dec. 2002), available at LegalAffairs.org

Jerome Frank, Why Not a Clinical Lawyer School?, 81 U. PA. L. REV. 907 (1933).

Robin S. Golden and Sameera Fazili, Raising the Roof: Addressing the Mortgage Foreclosure Crisis Through a Collaboration Between City Government and a Law School Clinic, 2 ALB. GOV’T L. REV. 29 (2009).

Carolyn Grose, A Field Trip to Benetton . . . and Beyond: Some Thoughts on “Outsider Narrative” in a Law School Clinic, 4 CLIN. L. REV. 109 (1997).

Laura G. Holland, Invading the Ivory Tower: The History of Clinical Education at Yale Law School, 49 J. LEGAL EDUC. 504 (1999).

Deena R. Hurwitz, Lawyering for Justice and the Inevitability of International Human Rights Clinics, 28 YALE J. INT’L L. 505 (2003).

Laura Kalman, YALE LAW SCHOOL AND THE SIXTIES: REVOLT AND REVERBERATIONS (2005).

David Luban & Michael Millemann, Good Judgment: Ethics Teaching in Dark Times, 9 GEO. J. LEGAL ETHICS 31, 39 (1995).

Carrie Menkel-Meadow, Aha? Is Creativity Possible in Legal Problem Solving and Teachable in Legal Education?, 6 HARV. NEG. L. REV. 97 (2001).

Carrie Menkel-Meadow, Two Contradictory Criticisms of Clinical Legal Education: Dilemmas and Directions in Lawyering Education, 4 ANTIOCH L. J. 287 (1986).

CARRIE MENKEL-MEADOW, THE 59TH STREET LEGAL CLINIC: EVALUATION OF THE EXPERIMENT (1979).

Jean Koh Peters, Access to Justice: The Social Responsibility of Lawyers: Habit, Story, Delight: Essential Tools for the Public Service Advocate, 7 WASH. U. J.L. & POL’Y 17 (2001).

William Pincus, The Lawyer’s Professional Responsibility, 22 J. LEGAL EDUC. (1969).

WILLIAM PINCUS, CLINICAL EDUCATION FOR LAW STUDENTS (1980).

Deborah L. Rhode, Teaching Legal Ethics, 51 ST. LOUIS U. L.J. 1043 (2007).

PHILIP G. SCHRAG & MICHAEL MELTSNER, REFLECTIONS ON CLINICAL LEGAL EDUCATION (1998).

Jeff Selbin & Jeanne Charn, Legal Aid, Law School Clinics and the Opportunity for Joint Gain, NYLS Clinical Research Institute Paper No. 08/09-3, available at SSRN.

Aviam Soifer, Covered Bridges, 17 YALE J. OF LAW & THE HUMANITIES 55 (2005).

Tributes to Robert Cover, 96 YALE L. J. 1069 (1987).

Shauna Van Praagh, Stories in Law School: An Essay on Language, Participation, and the Power of Legal Education, 2 COLUM. J. GENDER & L. 111, 113-114 (1992).

Lucie E. White, The Transformative Potential of Clinical Legal Education, 1997 OSGOODE HALL L. J. 603 (1997).

Michael Wishnie, Labor Law After Legalization, 92 MINN. L. REV. 1446 (2008).

Stephen Wizner & Dennis Curtis, Here’s What We Do: Some Notes About Clinical Legal Education, 29 CLEV. ST. L. REV. 673 (1980).

Stephen Wizner & Robert Solomon, Law as Politics: A Response to Adam Babich, 11 CLINICAL L. REV. 473 (2005).
Stephen Wizner, Beyond Skills Training, 7 CLINICAL L. REV. 327 (2001).
Stephen Wizner, Is Learning to “Think Like a Lawyer” Enough? 17 YALE L. & POL’Y REV. 583 (1998).
Stephen Wizner, Can Law Schools Teach Students To Do Good? Legal Education and the Future of Legal Services for the Poor, 3 N.Y. CITY L. REV. 259 (2000).

Jacob D. Zeldes, The Real Impact of Gideon: A Personal Experiences, Symposium, Connecticut Public Interest Law Journal (Nov. 13, 2003).

The Sentencing Guidelines: What Went Wrong? What Went Right?

Douglas A. Berman & Stephanos Bibas, Making Sentencing Sensible, 4 OHIO ST. J. CRIM. L. 37 (2006).

Stephen Breyer, The Federal Sentencing Guidelines and the Key Compromises Upon Which They Rest, 17 HOFSTRA L. REV. 1 (1988).

Dennis Curtis, Mistretta and Metaphor, 66 S. CAL. L. REV. 607 (1992).

Dennis Curtis, The Reform of Federal Sentencing and Parole Laws, NAT’L PRISON PROJECT J. (Fall 1987).

DENNIS CURTIS, PIERCE O’DONNELL, AND MICHAEL J. CHURGIN, TOWARD A JUST AND EFFECTIVE SENTENCING SYSTEM: AGENDA FOR LEGISLATIVE REFORM (1979). 

Dennis E. Curtis, Legislating Federal Crime and Its Consequences: The Effect of Federalization on the Defense Function, 543 ANNALS AM. ACAD. POL. & SOC. SCI. 85 (1996).

Terence Dunworth & Charles D. Weisselberg, Felony Cases and the Federal Courts: The Guidelines Experience, 66 S. CAL. L. REV. 99 (1992).

Federal Sentencing Guidelines Symposium, 15 FED. SENT’G REP. 151 (2003).

MARVIN E. FRANKEL, CRIMINAL SENTENCES: LAW WITHOUT ORDER (1973).

Daniel J. Freed, Federal Sentencing in the Wake of Guidelines: Unacceptable Limits on the Discretion of Sentencers, 101 YALE L.J. 1681 (1992).

William J. Genego, Peter D. Goldberg & Vicki C. Jackson, Parole Release Decisionmaking and the Sentencing Project, 84 YALE L. J. 810 (1975). 

Nancy Gertner, What Yogi Berra Teaches About Post-Booker Sentencing, 115 YALE L.J. 137 (2006), available at The Pocket Part.

Nancy Gertner, From Omnipotence to Impotence: American Judges and Sentencing, 4 OHIO ST. J. CRIM. L. 523, 526 (2007).

Nancy Gertner, Federal Sentencing Survey: Rita Needs Gall: How to Make the Guidelines Advisory, 85 DENV. U.L. REV. 63 (2007).

United States v. Cabrera, 567 F. Supp. 2d 271 (D. Mass. 2008) (Gertner, J.).

United States v. Garrison, 560 F. 2 83 (D. Mass. 2008) (Gertner, J.).

United States v. Haynes, 557 F. Supp. 2d 200 (D. Mass. 2008) (Gertner, J.).

United States v. Jaber, 362 F. Supp. 2d 365 (D. Mass. 2005) (Gertner, J.).

United States v. Maisonet, 493 F. Supp. 2d 255 (D.P.R. 2007) (Gertner, J.).

JEROME GROOPMAN, HOW DOCTORS THINK (2007).

Paul J. Hofer, Kevin R. Blackwell, & R. Barry Ruback, The Effect of the Federal Sentencing Guidelines on Inter-Judge Sentencing Disparity, 90 J. CRIM. L. & CRIMINOLOGY 239 (1999).

Chantale LaCasse & A. Abigail Payne, Federal Sentencing Guidelines and Mandatory Minimum Sentences: Do Defendants Bargain in the Shadow of the Judge?, 42 J. L. & ECON. 245 (1999).

Rory Little & Teresa Chen, The Lost History of Apprendi and the Blakely Petition for Rehearing, 17 FED. SENT’G REP. 69 (2004).

Phyllis J. Newton, Jill Glazer, & Kevin Blackwell, Gender, Individuality, and the Federal Sentencing Guidelines, 8 FED. SENT’G R. 148 (1995).

Alexandra A.E. Shapiro & Nathan H. Seltzer, Guidelines or Higher: NYCDL’s Study of Reasonableness Review Patterns Reveals the Courts of Appeals’ Aversion to Parsimony, 19 FED. SENT’G REP. 177 (2007).

Kate Stith, The Arc of the Pendulum: Judges, Prosecutors, and the Exercise of Discretion, 117 YALE L.J. 1420 (2008).

KATE STITH & JOSÉ A. CABRANES, FEAR OF JUDGING: SENTENCING GUIDELINES IN THE FEDERAL COURTS (1998).

Ahmed E. Taha, The Equilibrium Effect of Legal Rule Changes: Are the Federal Sentencing Guidelines Being Circumvented?, 21 INT’L REV. L. & ECON. 251 (2001).

STANTON WHEELER, KENNETH MANN & AUSTIN SARAT, SITTING IN JUDGMENT: THE SENTENCING OF WHITE COLLAR CRIMINALS (1988).

UNITED STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION, FIFTEEN YEARS OF GUIDELINES SENTENCING:  AN ASSESSMENT OF HOW WELL THE FEDERAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM IS ACHIEVING THE GOALS OF SENTENCING REFORM (2004).

UNITED STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION, FINAL REPORT ON THE IMPACT OF UNITED STATES V. BOOKER ON FEDERAL SENTENCING (2006).

Detained Clients: From Danbury and Connecticut Valley Hospital to
    Immigration Jails and Guantánamo

Muneer I. Ahmad, Resisting Guantanamo: Rights at the Brink of Dehumanization, 103 NW. U. L. REV. (forthcoming 2009); American University, WCL Research Paper No. 08-65, abstract available at SSRN.

Coleman v. Schwartzenegger, No. Civ. S-90-0520 LKK JFM P, No. Civ. C01-1351 TEH (N.D. Cal. & E. D. Cal. February 9, 2009) (three judge court; tentative ruling), available at PrisonLaw.com .

Detention and Removal: Immigration Detainee Medical Care: Hearing Before the Subcomm. on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law of the H. Comm. on the Judiciary, 110th Cong. (Oct. 4, 2007) (testimony of Tom Jawetz).

MALCOLM M. FEELEY & EDWARD L. RUBIN, JUDICIAL POLICYMAKING AND THE MODERN STATE (1998).

Craig Haney & Philip Zimbardo, The Past and Future of U.S. Prison Policy: Twenty-five Years After the Stanford Prison Experiment, 53 AM. PSYCHOL. 709 (1998). 

Madrid v. Gomez, 889 F. Supp. 1146 (N.D. Cal. 1995).

Peter Margulies, The Detainees’ Dilemma: The Virtues and Vices of Mobilization Strategies for Human Rights in the War on Terror, Working Paper Series, available at SSRN.

Pew Center on the States, ONE IN A HUNDRED: BEHIND BARS IN AMERICA (2008).

Dana Priest & Amy Goldstein, System of Neglect, WASH. POST, May 11, 2008, at A1.

Private Prison Information Act of 2007: Hearing on H.R. 1889 Before the Subcomm. on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security of the H. Comm. on the Judiciary, 110th Cong. (June 24, 2008) (written testimony of Tom Jawetz).

Jaya Ramji-Nogales, Andrew Schoenholtz & Philip G. Schrag, Refugee Roulette: Disparities in Asylum Adjudication, 60 STAN. L. REV. 295 (2007).

Judith Resnik, Tiers, 57 S. CAL. L. REV. 837 (1984).

Margo Schlanger, Inmate Litigation, 116 HARV. L. REV. 1555 (2003).

Margo Schlanger, Jail Strip-Search Cases: Patterns and Participants, 71 LAW & CONTEMP. PROB. 65 (2008).

Giovanna Shay & Christopher Lasch, Initiating a New Constitutional Dialogue: The Increased Importance Under AEDPA of Seeking Certiorari from Judgments of State Courts, 50 WM. & MARY L. REV. 211 (2008).

Michael J. Wishnie, Emerging Issues for Undocumented Workers, 6 U. PA. J. LAB. & EMP. L. 497 (2003-2004).

Legal Services: Invention, Retrenchment, Reconfiguration, and Collaboration

Jane Aiken & Stephen Wizner, Law As Social Work, 11 WASH. U. J.L. & POL’Y 63 (2003).

Sameer M. Ashar, Law Clinics and Collective Mobilization, 14 CLINICAL L. REV. 355 (2008).
Helaine M. Barnett, Justice for All: Are We Fulfilling the Pledge?, 41 IDAHO L. REV. 403 (2005).
Gary Bellow, Steady Work: A Practitioner’s Reflections on Political Lawyering, 31 HARV. C.R.-C.L. L. REV. 297 (1996).
Bibliography to the Conference on the Delivery of Legal Services to Low-Income Persons: Professional And Ethical Issues, 67 FORDHAM L. REV. 2731 (1999).

Dennis Curtis & Judith Resnik, Grieving Criminal Defense Lawyers, 70 FORDHAM L. REV. 1615 (2002).

Dennis Curtis, Judith Resnik, & Deborah Hensler, Individuals Within the Aggregate: Relationships, Representation and Fees, 71 N.Y.U. L. REV. 296 (1996).

Dennis E. Curtis & Judith Resnik, Contingency Fees in Mass Torts: Access, Risk and the Provision of Legal Services When Layers of Lawyers Work for Individuals and Collectives of Clients, 47 DEPAUL L. REV. 425 (1998).

“Documenting the Justice Gap in America: The Current Unmet Civil Legal Needs of Low-Income Americans,” Second Edition, Legal Services Corporation, Washington, D.C., June 2007, available at lsc.gov.

Robert Granfield, Institutionalizing Public Service in Law School: Results on the Impact of Mandatory Pro Bono Programs, 54 BUFFALO L. REV. 1355 (2007).
Steven Gunn, Eviction Defense for Poor Tenants: Costly Compassion or Justice Served?, 13 YALE L. & POL’Y REV. 385 (1995).
Kenneth Mann & David Weiner, Creating a Public Defender System in the Shadow of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, 48 N.Y.L. SCH. L. REV. 91 (2003).
Jean Koh Peters, The Five Habits: Building Cross-Cultural Competence in Lawyers, 8 CLINICAL L. REV. 33 (Fall 2001).

Jean Koh Peters & Mark Weisberg, Core Skills in Legal Education: Experiments in Listening, 57 J. LEGAL EDUC. 427 (2007).

Jay Pottenger, The Role of [Clinical] Legal Education in Legal Reform in the People’s Republic of China: Chicken, Egg – or Fox?, 6 INT’L J. CLINICAL LEGAL EDUC. 65 (2004).

Judith Resnik & Emily Bazelon, Legal Services: Then and Now, Arthur Liman Colloquium Papers, 17 YALE L. & POL’Y REV. 291, 295 (1998).

Deborah L. Rhode, Access to Justice: Again, Still, 73 FORDHAM L. REV. 1013 (2004).

Deborah L. Rhode, Public Interest Law: The Movement at Midlife, 60 STAN. L. REV. 2027 (2008).

Robert A. Solomon, Representing the Poor and Homeless: A Community-Based Approach, 19 ST. LOUIS U. PUB. L. REV. 475 (2000).

Stephen Wexler, Practicing Law for Poor People, 79 YALE L. J. 1049 (1970).

Lucie E. White, Goldberg v. Kelly on the Paradox of Lawyering for the Poor, 56 BROOKLYN L. REV. 861-862 (1990).

Stephen Wizner, Law School Clinic: Legal Education in the Interests of Justice, 70 FORDHAM L. REV. 1929 (2002).
Stephen Wizner, Rationing Justice, 1997 ANN. SURV. AM. L. 1019 (1997).
Stephen Wizner, Religious Values, Legal Ethics, and Poverty Law: A Response to Thomas Shaffer, 31 FORDHAM URB. L.J. 37 (2003).
Stephen Wizner, Repairing the World Through Law: A Reflection on Robert Cover’s Social Activism, 8 CARDOZO STUD. L. & LITERATURE 1 (1996).
Stephen Wizner, On Youth Crime and the Juvenile Court, 36 B.C. L. REV. 1025 (1995).
Stephen Wizner, Homelessness: Advocacy and Social Policy, 45 U. MIAMI L. REV. 387 (1990).
Stephen Wizner, Tributes to Robert M. Cover, 96 YALE L.J. 1699 (1987).
Stephen Wizner, A Theology of Justice: Some Reflections on Milner Ball’s Non-Religious Practice of Belief, 41 GA. L. REV. 945 (2007).

Global Actors: The Value and Ethics of Human Rights Clinics

Scott L. Cummings & Louise G. Trubek, Globalizing Public Interest Law, UCLA J. INT’L L. & FOREIGN AFF. (forthcoming 2009). Available here.

Paul R. Dubinsky, Justice for the Collective: The Limits of the Human Rights Class Action, 102 MICH. L. REV. 1152 (2004).

BRANDT GOLDSTEIN, STORMING THE COURT: HOW A BAND OF YALE LAW STUDENTS SUED THE PRESIDENT—AND WON (2005).

Dina Francesca Haynes, Client Centered Human Rights Advocacy, 13 CLINICAL L. REV. 379 (2006).

Deena R. Hurwitz, Lawyering for Justice and the Inevitability of International Human Rights Clinics, 28 YALE J. INT’L L. 505 (2003).

Harold Hongju Koh, Why Transnational Law Matters, 24 PENN ST. INT’L L. REV. 745 (2006).

Harold Hongju Koh, The Haitian Refugee Litigation: A Case Study in Transnational Public Law Litigation, 18 MD. J. INT’L L. & TRADE 1 (1994).

David Kennedy, Boundaries in the Field of Human Rights: The International Human Rights Movement: Part of the Problem?, 15 HARV. HUM. RTS. J. 101 (2002).

Julieta Lemaitre, Legal Fetishism at Home and Abroad, 3 UNBOUND 6 (2007), available at LegalLeft.org.

Elliott Milstein, Preparing Students for Transnational Lawyering: The Role of Clinical Legal Education, AALS Conference on Educating Lawyers for Transnational Challenges (2004), available at AALS.org.

Makau Mutua, Savages, Victims, and Saviours: The Metaphor of Human Rights, 42 HARV. INT’L L.J. 201 (2001).

David Rieff, The Precarious Triumph of Human Rights, N.Y. TIMES MAGAZINE, Aug. 8, 1999.

Peter Rosenblum, Teaching Human Rights: Ambivalent Activism, Multiple Discourses, and Lingering Dilemmas, 15 HARV. HUM. RTS. J. 301 (2002).

Law Schools’ Commitments to Clinical Education:
   Structure, Stature, and Subsidies

Sameer Ashar, Public Interest Lawyers and Resistance Movements, 95 CAL. L. REV. 1879 (2007).

Sari Bashi and Maryana Iskander, Why Legal Education is Failing Women, 18 YALE J. L. & FEMINISM 389, 442 (2006).
Dennis Curtis & Judith Resnik, Teaching Billing: Metrics of Value in Law Firms and Law Schools, 54 STAN. L. REV. 1409 (2002). 
Dennis Curtis, Can Law Schools and Big Law Firms Be Friends?, 74 S. CAL. L. REV. 65 (2000).
Robert Dinerstein, Developments in the Clinical Program, 1988-1995, 15 ADVOC. 10 (Spring 1995).

Robert Dinerstein, Clinical Education in a Different Voice: A Reply to Robert Rader, 1 CLIN. L. REV. 711 (1995).

Robert Dinerstein, et al., Report of the Committee on the Future of the In-House Clinic, 42 J. LEGAL EDUC. 508 (1992).

Jerome Frank, A Plea for Lawyer-Schools, 56 YALE L.J. 1303 (1947).

Peter A. Joy & Charles D. Weisselberg, Access to Justice, Academic Freedom, and Political Interference: A Clinical Program Under Siege, 4 CLINICAL L. REV. 531 (1998).

Pamela S. Karlan, Thomas C. Goldstein & Amy Howe, Go East, Young Lawyers: The Stanford Law School Supreme Court Clinic, 7 J. APP. PRAC. & PROCESS 207 (2005).

Harold Hongju Koh, Is There A “New” New Haven School of International Law?, 32 YALE J. INT’L L. 559 (2007).

Robert R. Kuehn & Peter A. Joy, An Ethics Critique of Interference in Law School Clinics, 71 FORDHAM L. REV. 1971 (2003).

Robert A. Kuehn, Denying Access to Legal Representation: The Attack on the Tulane Environmental Law Clinic, 4 WASH. U. J.L. & POL’Y 33 (2000).

Michael Pinard, A Brief Reflection on the Multiple Identities and Roles of the Twenty-First Century Clinician, 4 U. MD. L.J. RACE RELIG. GENDER & CLASS 285 (2004).

Deborah L. Rhode, Legal Education: Professional Interests and Public Values, 34 IND. L. REV. 23 (2000).

Deborah L. Rhode, Cultures of Commitment: Pro Bono for Lawyers and Law Students, 67 FORDHAM L. REV. 2415 (2000).

Susan Sturm & Lani Guinier, The Law School Matrix: Reforming Legal Education in a Culture of Competition and Conformity, 60 VAND. L. REV. 515 (2007).

Susan P. Sturm, From Gladiators to Problem-Solvers: Connecting Conversation About Women, the Academy, and the Legal Profession, 120 DUKE J. GENDER L. & POL’Y 119 (1997).

Stephen Wizner, Walking the Clinical Tightrope: Between Doing and Teaching, 4 U. MD. L. J. RACE RELIG. GENDER & CLASS 267 (2004).

Stephen Wizner, What is a Law School?, 38 EMORY L.J. 701 (1989).