Bruce Ackerman is Sterling Professor of Law and Political Science at Yale, and the author of fifteen books that have had a broad influence in political philosophy, constitutional law, and public policy. His major works include Social Justice in the Liberal State and his multivolume constitutional history, We the People. His most recent books are The Decline and Fall of the American Republic (2010), The Failure of the Founding Fathers (2005), and Before the Next Attack (2006). His book, The Stakeholder Society (with Anne Alstott), served as a basis for Tony Blair’s recent introduction of child investment accounts in the United Kingdom. Professor Ackerman is a member of the American Law Institute and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He is a Commander of the French Order of Merit, and the recipient of the American Philosophical Society’s Henry Phillips Prize for Lifetime Achievement in Jurisprudence. He received his B.A. from Harvard University and his LL.B from Yale Law School.
Akhil Reed Amar is Sterling Professor of Law and Political Science at Yale University, where he teaches constitutional law at both Yale College and Yale Law School. He received his B.A, summa cum laude, in 1980 from Yale College, and his J.D. in 1984 from Yale Law School, where he served as an editor of The Yale Law Journal. After clerking for Judge Stephen Breyer, U.S. Court of Appeals, 1st Circuit, Professor Amar joined the Yale faculty in 1985. Along with Dean Paul Brest and Professors Sanford Levinson, Jack Balkin, and Reva Siegel, Professor Amar is the co-editor of a leading constitutional law casebook, Processes of Constitutional Decisionmaking. He is also the author of several books, including The Constitution and Criminal Procedure: First Principles (Yale Univ. Press, 1997), The Bill of Rights: Creation and Reconstruction (Yale Univ. Press, 1998), and most recently, America’s Constitution: A Biography (Random House, 2005).
Jack M. Balkin is Knight Professor of Constitutional Law and the First Amendment at Yale Law School and the founder and director of Yale's Information Society Project, an interdisciplinary center that studies law and the new information technologies, as well as the director of the Abrams Institute for Freedom of Expression at Yale. Professor Balkin is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the author of over a hundred articles in different fields including constitutional theory, Internet law, freedom of speech, reproductive rights, jurisprudence, and the theory of ideology. He writes political and legal commentary at Balkinization (http://balkin.blogspot.com), and has written widely on legal issues for such publications as the New York Times, the New England Journal of Medicine, the Atlantic Online, the American Prospect, Washington Monthly, the New Republic Online, and Slate. His books include Living Originalism; Constitutional Redemption: Political Faith in an Unjust World; The Constitution in 2020 (with Reva Siegel); Processes of Constitutional Decisionmaking (5th ed., with Brest, Levinson, Amar and Siegel); Legal Canons (with Sanford Levinson); The State of Play: Law Games and Virtual Worlds (with Beth Noveck); Cybercrime: Digital Cops in a Networked Environment (with James Grimmelmann et al.); Cultural Software: A Theory of Ideology; The Laws of Change: I Ching and the Philosophy of Life; What Brown v. Board of Education Should Have Said; and What Roe v. Wade Should Have Said.
Emily Bazelon is a Senior Research Scholar in Law, Truman Capote Fellow for Creative Writing and Law, and Lecturer in Law at Yale Law School. She is a senior editor at Slate and a contributing writer at the New York Times Magazine. At Slate, she writes and edits about law and is co-editor of DoubleX, the magazine's section for women. Ms. Bazelon is a graduate of both Yale College and Yale Law School.
Joan Biskupic has covered the Supreme Court since 1989 and is the author of two judicial biographies: American Original: The Life and Constitution of Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2009) and Sandra Day O’Connor: How the First Woman on the Supreme Court Became Its Most Influential Justice (HarperCollins, 2005).
She joined Reuters in February 2012 as Legal Affairs editor-in-charge. She previously was the Supreme Court reporter for USA Today (2000-2012) and The Washington Post (1992-2000) and covered legal affairs for Congressional Quarterly's Weekly Report (1989-1992). She won the Everett McKinley Dirksen award for Distinguished Reporting of Congress for her coverage of the 1991 Clarence Thomas nomination and Senate confirmation hearings.
Biskupic holds a law degree from Georgetown University and is the author of several legal reference books, including Congressional Quarterly’s two- volume encyclopedia on the Supreme Court (3rd Ed., 1997) with co-editor Elder Witt.
Sujit Choudhry is Cecelia Goetz Professor of Law Faculty Director of the Center for Constitutional Transitions at the NYU School of Law (Constitutional Transitions). He holds law degrees from Oxford, Toronto, and Harvard, was a Rhodes Scholar, served as law clerk to Chief Justice Antonio Lamer of the Supreme Court of Canada, and was a Graduate Fellow at the Harvard University Center for Ethics and the Professions. Professor Choudhry is an internationally recognized authority on comparative constitutional law and comparative constitutional development, with a particular focus on Canada, South Africa, India and the United States. His work also addresses basic methodological questions in comparative constitutional law. Recently, he has written on constitutional design as a tool to manage the transition from violent conflict to peaceful democratic politics, especially in ethnically divided societies. He has published over sixty articles, chapters and reports. His edited collections include Constitutional Design for Divided Societies: Integration or Accommodation (Oxford, 2008) and The Migration of Constitutional Ideas (Cambridge, 2006). He sits on the Board of Editors of the International Journal of Constitutional Law, is a member of the Editorial Board of the Constitutional Court Review (South Africa), and is on the Board of Advisers for the Cambridge Studies in Constitutional Law. In 2010, he was one of four Canadians to receive the Trudeau Fellowship, the Canadian equivalent of the MacArthur awards.
Professor Choudhry provides constitutional advice to a broad range of public sector and private sector organizations, and is extensively involved in public policy development. Internationally, he is a member of the United Nations Mediation Roster, was a consultant to the United Nations Development Program and the World Bank Institute at the World Bank, has worked with the Forum of Federations in Sri Lanka and the Canadian Bar Association in Nepal, and was an intern at the Legal Resources Centre in South Africa and the World Health Organization in Geneva. In Canada, Professor Choudhry was a member of the Governing Toronto Advisory Panel, which proposed major reforms to the structure of municipal government in Toronto, and sat on the Board of Directors of Legal Aid Ontario, one of the largest publicly funded legal assistance programs in the world. He was counsel of record before the Supreme Court of Canada in Charkaoui (security certificates), and in Khadr 1 and Khadr 2 (Guantanamo detainees).
Justin Driver joined the faculty of the University of Texas School of Law in 2009. Driver received his undergraduate degree from Brown University, a master's degree in teaching from Duke University, and a master's degree in modern history from Magdalen College, University of Oxford, where he studied as a Marshall Scholar. In 2004, he graduated from Harvard Law School, where he was an Articles Editor and Book Reviews Chair of the Harvard Law Review. Driver served as a law clerk to Judge Merrick B. Garland, United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, and Justice Sandra Day O'Connor (ret.) and Justice Stephen Breyer, Supreme Court of the United States. His principal research interests include constitutional law and the intersection of race with legal institutions.
Garrett Epps, a former reporter for The Washington Post, is professor of law at the University of Baltimore. He is also Legal Affairs Editor of The American Prospect, and reports for the Prospect on the Supreme Court. His two most recent books are Peyote vs. The State: Religious Freedom on Trial and Democracy Reborn: The Fourteenth Amendment and the Fight for Equal Rights in Post-Civil War America. His legal analysis has appeared in The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Nation, and The Atlantic. His new book, Wrong and Dangerous: Ten Far Right Myths About Our Constitution, will be published in September by Rowman and Littlefield.
Barry Friedman is the Jacob D. Fuchsberg Professor of Law at New York University School of Law. He has been teaching, writing and litigating about constitutional law and constitutional issues for over twenty-five years, and is considered a foremost authority on the courts and the Constitution. Friedman is a prolific scholar whose work is frequently interdisciplinary, drawing from law, politics and history. He writes in journals in all those disciplines, and also in the more popular media. His work has appeared in The New York Times, The New Republic, Slate, Balkanization, and numerous other venues, and he is a frequent commentator in the mainstream media and the blogosphere. Friedman is the author of The Will of the People: How Public Opinion Influenced the Supreme Court and Shaped the Meaning of the Constitution, and Open Book: Succeeding on Exams from the First Day of Law School (with John Goldberg). He is also the co-editor (with Stephen Burbank) of Judicial Independence at the Crossroads: An Interdisciplinary Approach. At present he is writing a book on the Fourth Amendment and policing. Friedman has appeared at all levels of the state and federal courts on behalf of private and pro bono clients. In 1995 he won the Clarence Darrow Award from the ACLU of Tennessee for his work in defense of civil liberties. Friedman served as Vice Dean of the NYU law school from 2007-10. Among his administrative responsibilities at present is NYU’s active training of students who are looking toward academic careers. In that capacity he directs the Furman Academic Careers Program. Friedman has been invited to lecture throughout the country and the world. In 2011, Friedman won the Podell Distinguished Teaching Award.
Linda Greenhouse teaches at Yale Law School, where she is Joseph Goldstein Lecturer in Law, Knight Distinguished Journalist in Residence, and a faculty fellow of the Information Society Project. She came to the Law School in 2009 after a 40-year career at the New York Times, including nearly 30 years covering the U.S. Supreme Court. For her coverage of the Court, she won a Pulitzer Prize in 1998 as well as several other major journalism awards. She is a member of the Harvard University Board of Overseers, the national board of the American Constitution Society, and several other nonprofit boards. She is a graduate of Radcliffe College (Harvard) and earned a Master of Studies in Law Degree from Yale. Her most recent book, The U.S. Supreme Court: A Very Short Introduction, was published in March 2012 by Oxford University Press. Her earlier books are Becoming Justice Blackmun (2005) and Before Roe v. Wade: Voices That Shaped the Abortion Debate Before the Supreme Court’s Ruling (with Reva B. Siegel, 2010). For the past two years, she has written a biweekly opinion column on law for the New York Times Web site.
Michael S. Greve is the John G. Searle Scholar at the American Enterprise Institute. He also heads the Institute’s Transatlantic Law Forum. Before coming to AEI, Mr. Greve cofounded and, from 1989 to 2000, directed the Center for Individual Rights, a public interest law firm. Currently, Mr. Greve chairs the board of the Competitive Enterprise Institute and is a frequent contributor to the Liberty Law Blog.
Mr. Greve has written extensively on many aspects of the American legal system. His publications include numerous law review articles and books, including The Demise of Environmentalism in American Law (1996); Real Federalism: Why It Matters, How It Could Happen (1999); and Harm-less Lawsuits? What's Wrong With Consumer Class Actions (2005). He is the coeditor, with Richard A. Epstein, of Competition Laws in Conflict: Antitrust Jurisdiction in the Global Economy (2004) and Federal Preemption: States' Powers, National Interests (2007); and, with Michael Zoeller, of Citizenship in America and Europe: Beyond the Nation-State? (2009). His most recent work, The Upside-Down Constitution (Harvard University Press, 2012), is now available on Amazon.com.
He holds a Ph.D. and M.A. in government from Cornell University, and completed his undergraduate studies at the University of Hamburg. He has taught graduate and undergraduate courses as an adjunct professor at Cornell, Boston College, and the Johns Hopkins University.
Sanford Levinson is W. St. John Garwood and W. St. John Garwood Jr. Centennial Chair in Law, University of Texas Law School, and Professor of Government, University of Texas at Austin. He is the author of many articles and books, most recently Constitutional Faith (2d ed. 2011) and Framed: America’s 51 Constitutions and the Crisis of Governance (2012). He has frequently visited the Harvard and Yale Law Schools, most recently in Fall 2011. He was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2001.
Adam Liptak covers the Supreme Court for The New York Times. Liptak’s column on legal affairs, “Sidebar,” appears every other Tuesday.
Liptak was a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize in explanatory reporting in 2009 for “American Exception,” a series of articles examining ways in which the American legal system differs from those of other developed nations. He received the 2010 Scripps Howard Award for Washington reporting for a five-part series on the Roberts Court.
A graduate of Yale College and Yale Law School, Liptak practiced law at a large New York City law firm and in the legal department of The New York Times Company before joining the paper’s news staff in 2002.
His journalism has appeared in The New Yorker, Vanity Fair and Rolling Stone, and he has published articles in The Arizona Law Review, The Michigan Law Review and The New York University Annual Survey of American Law.
He has taught courses on the Supreme Court and on the First Amendment at the Columbia University School of Journalism, U.C.L.A. School of Law, University of Southern California Gould School of Law and Yale Law School.
Dahlia Lithwick a senior editor and legal correspondent for Slate, writes the column "Supreme Court Dispatches" and has covered the Microsoft trial and other legal issues.
Before joining Slate, she worked for a family law firm in Reno, Nev., and clerked for Procter Hug, chief justice of the ninth Circuit Court of Appeals in 1996. Her work has appeared in the New Republic, Commentary, The New York Times, The Washington Post, Elle and on CNN.com. She is a weekly legal commentator for the NPR show, Day to Day.
She is co-author of "Me v. Everybody: Absurd Contracts for an Absurd World" (Workman Publishing, 2003), a legal humor book, and "I Will Sing Life: Voices from the Hole in the Wall Gang Camp" (Little, Brown & Co., 1992), a book about seven children from Paul Newman's camp who have life-threatening illnesses.
Ms. Lithwick was awarded the Online News Association's award for online commentary in 2001. She received a B.A degree in English from Yale University in 1990 and a J.D degree from Stanford Law School in 1996.
Armando Llorens is a Featured Writer at the Daily Kos political blog and a contributor at Talk Left, a political and legal blog.
Armando is a practicing attorney in New York. He graduated from Brown University and received his J.D. from the Columbia University Law School.
Michael W. McConnell is the Richard & Frances Mallery Professor and Director of the Constitutional Law Center at Stanford Law School, as well as Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution. He is a leading authority on freedom of speech and religion, the relation of individual rights to government structure, originalism, and various other aspects of constitutional history and constitutional law. He is author of numerous articles and co-author of two casebooks: THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES (Foundation Press) and RELIGION AND THE CONSTITUTION (Aspen). He is co-editor of CHRISTIAN PERSPECTIVES ON LEGAL THOUGHT (Yale Univ. Press). Since 1996, he has been a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Robert Post is Dean and Sol & Lillian Goldman Professor of Law at Yale Law School. Before coming to Yale, he taught at the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law (Boalt Hall). Dean Post’s subject areas are constitutional law, First Amendment, legal history, and equal protection. He has written and edited numerous books, including Democracy, Expertise, Academic Freedom: A First Amendment Jurisprudence for the Modern State (2012); For the Common Good: Principles of American Academic Freedom (with Matthew M. Finkin, 2009); Prejudicial Appearances: The Logic of American Antidiscrimination Law (with K. Anthony Appiah, Judith Butler, Thomas C. Grey, and Reva Siegel, 2001); and Constitutional Domains: Democracy, Community, Management (1995). He publishes regularly in legal journals and other publications; recent articles and chapters include “Theorizing Disagreement: Reconceiving the Relationship Between Law and Politics” (California Law Review, 2010); “Constructing the European Polity: ERTA and the Open Skies Judgments” in The Past and Future of EU Law: The Classics of EU Law Revisited on the 50th Anniversary of the Rome Treaty (Miguel Poiares Maduro & Loïc Azuolai eds., 2010); “Roe Rage: Democratic Constitutionalism and Backlash” (with Reva Siegel, Harvard Civil-Rights Civil-Liberties Law Review, 2007); “Federalism, Positive Law, and the Emergence of the American Administrative State: Prohibition in the Taft Court Era” (William & Mary Law Review, 2006); “Foreword: Fashioning the Legal Constitution: Culture, Courts, and Law” (Harvard Law Review, 2003); and “Subsidized Speech" (Yale Law Journal, 1996). He is a member of the American Philosophical Society and the American Law Institute and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He has an A.B. and Ph.D. in History of American Civilization from Harvard and a J.D. from Yale Law School.
Jeffrey Rosen is a professor of law at The George Washington
University and the legal affairs editor of The New Republic. His most recent
book is The Supreme Court: The Personalities and Rivalries that Defined
America. He also is the author of The Most Democratic Branch, The Naked Crowd,
and The Unwanted Gaze. Rosen is a graduate of Harvard College, summa cum laude;
Oxford University, where he was a Marshall Scholar; and Yale Law School.
Professor Rosen's essays and commentaries have appeared in the New York Times Magazine, The Atlantic Monthly, on National Public Radio, and in The New Yorker, where he has been a staff writer. The Chicago Tribune named him one of the 10 best magazine journalists in America and the L.A. Times called him, "the nation's most widely read and influential legal commentator." Professor Rosen lives in Washington, D.C., with his wife Christine Rosen and two sons.
Reihan Salam is an American non-fiction writer and policy analyst. He is now a policy advisor at e21, he writes a twice-weekly column for The Daily, and he is the lead blogger for National Review’s The Agenda. Despite his enormous eyebrows, he has appeared on CNN, ABC, PBS, FOX, NBC, MSNBC, BBC, CBC, TVO, AJE, RT, HBO, and a number of other television networks that may or may not exist outside of his imagination. He also appears on the radio, where listeners are less likely to be alarmed by his disconcertingly shiny pate.
Charlie Savage, Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist, is a Washington correspondent for the New York Times. A native of Fort Wayne, Indiana, Savage graduated summa cum laude from Harvard College in 1998 and later earned a master's degree from Yale Law School while on a Knight Foundation journalism fellowship. He began his career as a local government and politics reporter for the Miami Herald, and covered national legal affairs for the Boston Globe from 2003 to 2008 before moving to the Times. Savage lives in Washington, D.C., with his wife, the journalist Luiza Ch. Savage of Maclean's Magazine, and their sons, William and Peter.
Savage's work on presidential power and other legal policy matters has been widely recognized. His articles in the Boston Globe received the Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting, the American Bar Association's Silver Gavel Award, and the Gerald R. Ford Prize for Distinguished Reporting on the Presidency. Savage's book about the growth of executive power, Takeover, was named one of the best books of 2007 by both Slate and Esquire. The book also received the bipartisan Constitution Project's inaugural Award for Constitutional Commentary, the NCTE George Orwell Award for Distinguished Contribution to Honesty and Clarity in Public Language, and the New York Public Library's Helen Bernstein Book Award for Excellence in Journalism
Kim Lane Scheppele is the Laurance S. Rockefeller Professor of Sociology and Public Affairs in the Woodrow Wilson School and the University Center for Human Values as well as Director of the Program in Law and Public Affairs, Princeton University. She joined the Princeton faculty in 2005 after nearly a decade on the faculty of the University of Pennsylvania School of Law, where she was the John J. O'Brien Professor of Comparative Law. From 1994-1998, Scheppele lived in Budapest, doing research at the Constitutional Court of Hungary and teaching at both the University of Budapest and at Central European University, where she was a founding director of the Program in Gender and Culture. Scheppele’s work concentrates on the intersection of constitutional and international law, particularly in constitutional systems under stress. After 1989, Scheppele studied the emergence of constitutional law in Hungary and Russia, living in both places for extended periods. After 9/11, Scheppele has researched the effects of the international "war on terror" on constitutional protections around the world. In short, when the Berlin Wall fell, she studied the transition of countries from police states to constitutional rule-of-law states and after the Twin Towers fell, she studies the process in reverse. Her many publications on both post-1989 constitutional transitions and on post-9/11 constitutional challenges have appeared in law reviews, social science journals and in many languages (including Russian, Hungarian and French). Her new book is called The International State of Emergency: The Rise of Global Security Law. It will appear in 2013 with Harvard University Press.
Neil S. Siegel is Professor of Law and Political Science and co-director of the Program in Public Law at Duke University School of Law. Professor Siegel teaches in the areas of U.S. constitutional law, constitutional theory, and federal courts. His research interests include constitutional law, constitutional theory, law and politics, and the economic analysis of constitutional law.
Professor Siegel served as special counsel to Senator Joseph R. Biden during the confirmation hearings of John G. Roberts and Samuel A. Alito. During the October 2003 term, he clerked for Associate Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg at the U.S. Supreme Court. He also served as Bristow Fellow in the Office of the Solicitor General at the U.S. Department of Justice and as law clerk to Judge J. Harvie Wilkinson III of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit.
Professor Siegel received his B.A. (Economics and Political Science), summa cum laude, in 1994 and his M.A. (Economics) in 1995 from Duke University. He graduated in 2001 with joint degrees from the University of California, Berkeley, receiving his J.D. (first in class) from Berkeley Law and a Ph.D. in Jurisprudence and Social Policy. While at Berkeley Law, he served as the Senior Articles Editor of the California Law Review.
Reva Siegel is the Nicholas deB. Katzenbach Professor of Law at Yale University. Professor Siegel’s writing draws on legal history to explore questions of law and inequality, and to analyze how courts interact with representative government and popular movements in interpreting the Constitution—themes addressed recently in articles including: Dignity and Sexuality: Claims on Dignity in Transnational Debates over Abortion and Same-Sex Marriage, I.CON (forthcoming 2012); Before (and After) Roe v. Wade: New Questions About Backlash, 120 Yale L.J. 2028 (2011) (with Linda Greenhouse); From Colorblindness to Antibalkanization: An Emerging Ground of Decision in Race Equality Cases, 120 Yale L.J. 1278 (2011); Dead or Alive: Originalism as Popular Constitutionalism in Heller, 122 Harv. L. Rev. 191 (2008). Her books include Before Roe v. Wade: Voices That Shaped the Abortion Debate Before the Supreme Court’s Ruling (with Linda Greenhouse, 2010), The Constitution in 2020 (edited with Jack Balkin, 2009); and Processes of Constitutional Decisionmaking (with Brest, Levinson, Balkin & Amar, 2006). Professor Siegel is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and is active in the American Constitution Society, on the board of the national organization and as faculty advisor of Yale’s chapter.
Sara Aronchick Solow is a law clerk for the Honorable Anthony J. Scirica on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit. Next year, she will be staying in Philadelphia to clerk for the Honorable Michael M. Baylson on the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. Sara is a recent graduate of Yale Law School (Feb. 2011), where she received prizes for her work in international law and civil litigation. During her time at YLS, Sara was a Coker Fellow in Legal Writing, a Teaching Assistant in International Law, Student Director of the Education Adequacy Project (Yale’s education clinic), Executive Editor of the Yale Journal of International Law, Comments Editor for the Yale Law & Policy Review, and a Board Member for the Moot Court competition. In 2005, Sara graduated summa cum laude from Yale College, majoring in Ethics, Politics & Economics.
Sara took a leave of absence from law school to join Barack Obama’s campaign and Presidential Transition Team. She was a member of the Economic Policy Team, where she helped formulate the president’s policies on housing, financial markets, job creation, and taxes. Sara has spent time at the United States Office for the Solicitor General, the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the Southern District of New York, the Philadelphia District Attorney’s Office, and Williams & Connolly. Before law school, she worked for the Chief Economist of Goldman Sachs and for Gene B. Sperling, a Senior Fellow at the Center for American Progress.
Sara has written on constitutional law, international law, and national security. She has published pieces in the Yale Law & Policy Review, the Yale Journal of International Law, and has a forthcoming article in the St. John’s Law Review. She is also a new blogger for Lawfare, where she reviews books.
Steven Teles is Associate Professor of Political Science at Johns Hopkins University. He has been a professor or visiting researcher at Harvard, Yale, Princeton, University of Maryland, Brandeis University, the University of London, Holy Cross and Hamilton Colleges. He is the author, most recently, of The Rise of the Conservative Legal Movement: The Battle for Control of the Law (Princeton University Press, 2008), and before that Whose Welfare: AFDC and Elite Politics (University Press of Kansas, 1996). He is the co-editor of two books: Conservatism and American Political Development (Oxford University Press, 2009, with Brian Glenn) and Ethnicity, Social Mobility and Public Policy: Comparing the US and UK (Cambridge University Press, 2005, with Glenn Loury and Tariq Modood). Mr. Teles is also the editor of Oxford University Press' book series on Contemporary American Political Development.
He received his PhD in Government and Foreign Affairs from the University of Virginia in 1995, and his BA in Political Science from George Washington University in 1989.
As a Schwartz Fellow at New America, Mr. Teles is looking at the intersection of politics and policymaking, as well as the role of private philanthropies in formulating public policies.