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Kyrgyzstan (Republic of)[1] [print]

Last edited: November 2005


Summary and Analysis


Kyrgyzstan ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child on January 12, 1994. According to the Constitution, the Convention takes precedence over local legislation and can be directly invoked by the procurator agencies, monitoring bodies and the courts.[2] The Constitution also establishes the right to free expression and dissemination of thoughts, ideas and opinions.


The Minors' Rights (Protection and Defense) Act, which was adopted in 1999, gives concrete expression to the provisions of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. According to the state's report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, the law entitles children to apply to the child-welfare authorities for protection of their rights and interests when these are infringed by the parents or persons acting in their stead.[3] Unfortunately, we were unable to find a copy of this law.


The Family Code defines parents' duties and their responsibility for their children's education and physical development. It also defines the legal rules governing relations between parents and children and the basis for their respective rights and duties. The child has a right to be heard and to participate in proceedings before courts of general jurisdiction in criminal, civil and administrative proceedings in which the views of a minor are relevant. The minor may be heard directly or through his/her legal representative or the representatives of tutorship and guardianship authorities, the commissions for minors of government agencies, or the minors' inspectorates of internal affairs agencies.[4] When the child is 10 years old the court must take into account the child's opinion. In addition, in some cases detailed in the Family Code, the court must receive the child's consent if he is of the age of 10 and older. There are no limitations in the legislation on the possibility of a minor to file complaints in courts, either directly or through a representative.


According to the state's report, all domestic law promotes the implementation of children's rights. However, for a number of practical reasons the present system for legal protection of the child is still not effective enough. The main reason is that there is no integrated government policy for the comprehensive resolution of problems affecting children. In addition, there is no mechanism for ensuring that all the Government's measures concerning children are put into effect or for monitoring the application of decisions.[5]


The government established the Commission for Minors in order to ensure compliance with the provisions of the Convention. In addition, the Ombudsman office has a section dealing with children's rights.[6] Because minors know little about the law and the tutorship and guardianship authorities, and commissions for minors (which are responsible for monitoring children's welfare) lack the resources to function effectively, children are not protected from abuse and violence as well as they should be.[7]


According to an NGO report dated April 2004,[8] even when the law allows for the participation of the child (e.g. in court hearings), no appropriate procedures exist that would enable children to freely express themselves and make their opinions known.[9] Hearings of cases of children by the Commissions on Minors' Affairs are characterized by disrespect for children's views, failing to allow children to speak freely.[10] In addition, the Committee on the Rights of the Child noted with concern that children have limited opportunities to freely and fearlessly express their views in schools, courts, or within the family.[11] Thus, it seems that although the right of the child to be heard is recognized in the legislation, it is not fully implemented.


Sources of Law (In Order of Authority)


Original text





Раздел второй: Права и свободы человека


Статья 16.
(1-8 ...)
9. Каждый имеет право на свободу мысли, слова и печати, а также на беспрепятственное выражение этих мыслей и убеждений. Никто не может быть принужден к выражению своих мнений и убеждений.

International Law


Баланын укуктары жөнїндө конвенция [13]


12 статья


1. Катышкан мамлекеттер өзүнүн жеке көз караштарын билдирүүгө жөндөмдүү болгон баланын өзүнө тиешелүү болгoн бардык маселелер боюнча бул көз караштарды эркин билдирүү укугун камсыз кылат, мындан тышкары баланын көз караштарына анын курагына жана жетилгендигине ылайык тиешелүү

көңүл бурулат.

2. Бул максатта балага, атап айтканда тиешелүү ар кандай соттук же административдик териштирүүнүн жүрүшүндө аны угууга мүмкүнчүлүк берилет, же болбосо түздөн-түз, же болбосо өкүлү аркылуу же тиешелүү орган аркылуу улуттук мыйзамдардын процессуалдык нормаларында каралган тартипте кайрылууга мүмкүнчүлүк берилет.




The Family Code

О проекте Семейного кодекса Кыргызской Республики[14]



Статья 59. Право ребенка выражать свое мнение

Ребенок вправе выражать свое мнение при решении в семье любого вопроса, затрагивающего его интересы, а также быть заслушанным в ходе любого судебного или административного разбирательства. Учет мнения ребенка, достигшего возраста десяти лет, обязателен, за исключением случаев, когда это противоречит его интересам. В случаях, предусмотренных настоящим Кодексом (статьи 61, 74, 135, 137, 139, 146, 157), органы опеки и попечительства или суд могут принять решение только с согласия ребенка, достигшего возраста десяти лет.


Статья 66. Права и обязанности родителей по защите прав и интересов детей


1. Защита прав и интересов детей возлагается на их родителей.
Родители являются законными представителями своих детей и выступают в защиту их прав и интересов в отношениях с любыми физическими и юридическими лицами, в том числе в судах, без специальных полномочий.
2. Родители не вправе представлять интересы своих детей, если органом опеки и попечительства установлено, что между интересами родителей и детей имеются противоречия. В случае разногласий между родителями и детьми орган опеки и попечительства обязан назначить представителя для защиты прав и интересов детей.


Статья 74. Восстановление в родительских правах

1. Родители (один из них) могут быть восстановлены в родительских правах в случаях, если они изменили поведение, образ жизни и (или) отношение к воспитанию ребенка.
2. Восстановление в родительских правах осуществляется в судебном порядке по заявлению родителя, лишенного родительских прав. Дела о восстановлении в родительских правах рассматриваются с участием органа опеки и попечительства, а также прокурора.

3. Одновременно с заявлением родителей (одного из них) о восстановлении в родительских правах может быть рассмотрено требование о возврате ребенка родителям (одному из них).

4. Суд вправе с учетом мнения ребенка отказать в удовлетворении иска родителей (одного из них) о восстановлении в родительских правах, если восстановление в родительских правах противоречит интересам ребенка.
Восстановление в родительских правах в отношении ребенка, достигшего возраста десяти лет, возможно только с его письменного согласия.
Нe допускается восстановление в родительских правах, если ребенок усыновлен и усыновление не отменено (статья 143 настоящего Кодекса).


Civil Code





Статья 66. Опека и попечительство


1. Опека и попечительство устанавливаются для защиты прав иинтересов недееспособных или не полностью дееспособных граждан. Опека и попечительство над несовершеннолетними устанавливаются также в целяхих

воспитания. Соответствующие этому права и обязанности опекунов и попечителей определяются законодательством о браке и семье.

2. Опекуны и попечители выступают в защиту прав и интересов своих подопечных в отношениях с любыми лицами, в том числе в судах, без специального полномочия.

3. Опека и попечительство над несовершеннолетними устанавливаются при отсутствии унихродителей, усыновителей, лишении судом родителей родительских прав, а также в случаях, когда такие граждане по иным причинам остались без родительского попечения, в частности когда родители уклоняются от их воспитания либо защиты их прав и интересов.


Статья 67. Опека


1. Опека устанавливается над малолетними, а также над гражданами, признанными судом недееспособными вследствие психического расстройства.

2. Опекуны являются представителями подопечных в силу закона и совершают от их имени и в их интересах все необходимые сделки.


Статья 68. Попечительство


1. Попечительство устанавливается над несовершеннолетними в возрасте от четырнадцати до восемнадцати лет, а также над гражданами, ограниченными судом в дееспособности вследствие злоупотребления спиртными напитками или наркотическими средствами.

2. Попечители дают согласие на совершение тех сделков которые граждане, находящиеся под попечительством, не вправе совершать самостоятельно.

Попечители оказывают подопечным содействие в осуществлении ими своих прав и исполнении обязанностей, а также охраняют их от злоупотребления со стороны третьих лиц.






The Constitution[16]




Part two: Human rights and freedoms

Section 16.

9. Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, word, and press, and likewise to the unencumbered expression of these opinions and persuasions. No one can be constrained in the expression of his opinions and persuasions.


International Law


The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child [17]

Article 12

1. States Parties shall assure to the child who is capable of forming his or her own views the right to express those views freely in all matters affecting the child, the views of the child being given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child.

2. For this purpose, the child shall in particular be provided the opportunity to be heard in any judicial and administrative proceedings affecting the child, either directly, or through a representative or an appropriate body, in a manner consistent with the procedural rules of national law.




The Family Code [18]


Part 11: Rights of Minor Children

Section 59. The right of a child to express his opinion


The child has a right to express his opinion during the resolution in the family of any question affecting his interests, and also to be heard in the course of any judicial or administrative trial. The opinion of a child who has reached ten years of age must be taken into account, except in cases where this would contradict his interests. In cases stipulated by the present Code (sections 61, 74, 135, 137, 139, 146, 157), the bodies of guardianship and trusteeship or the court can make decisions only with the consent of the child who has reached ten years of age.


Part 12: Parents' Rights and Responsibilities  

Section 66. Rights and responsibilities of parents for the protection of children's rights and interests


1. The protection of children's rights and interests is carried out by their parents. Parents are the legal representatives of their children and speak out in protection of their rights and interests in relation to any physical or judicial bodies (persons), including in courts, without special permission.

2. Parents do not have the right to represent the interests of their children if the bodies of guardianship and trusteeship have established that there is a contradiction between the interests of the parents and the children. In case of a dispute between parents and children, the body of guardianship and trusteeship must appoint a representative for the protection of the children's rights and interests.


Section 74. Restoration of parental rights

1. Parents (a parent) can have their parental rights restored in cases where they have changed their behavior, lifestyle, and/or perspective on the upbringing of the child.

2. Restoration of parental rights is realized in judicial proceedings upon the motion (claim) of the parent deprived of parental rights. Cases regarding the restoration of parental rights are examined with the participation of the body of guardianship and trusteeship, as well as the prosecutor.

3. A claim about the restoration of the child to the parents (a parent) can be examined simultaneously with the motion of the parents (parent) regarding the restoration of parental rights.

4. The court has the right, keeping in mind the opinion of the child, to deny fulfillment to a request made by the parents (parent) for the restoration of parental rights, if the restoration of parental rights contradicts the interests of the child.

The restoration of parental rights in relation to a child who has reached ten years of age is possible only with his written consent.

Restoration of parental rights is prohibited if the child is adopted and the adoption is cancelled (Section 143 of the present Code).


Civil Code [19]


PART 1: General Positions



Section 66. Guardianship and trusteeship


1. Guardianship and trusteeship are established for the protection of the rights and interests of legally incapable or partially capable citizens. Guardianship and trusteeship over minors are established also for the purpose of their upbringing. Corresponding rights and responsibilities of guardians and trustees are determined by the legislation on marriage and family.

2. Guardians and trustees speak out in protection of the rights and interests of their wards in relations with any bodies, including courts, without special permission.

3. Guardianship and trusteeship over minors is established in the absence of their parents or their adoptive parents, in the deprivation by the court of their parents' parental rights, and also in cases, when such citizens for any reasons have been left without parental trusteeship, particularly when parents avoid their upbringing or the protection of their rights or interests.


Section 67. Guardianship


1. Guardianship is established over juveniles and also over citizens recognized by the court as legally incapable because of a psychological disorder.

2. Guardians are the legal representatives of their wards in the power of the law and act in their name and in their interests in all necessary transactions.


Section 68. Trusteeship


1. Trusteeship is established over minors from fourteen to eighteen years of age, and also over citizens limited by the court in their legal capacities as a result of the abuse of alcoholic beverages or narcotic drugs.

2. Trustees give their consent in the fulfillment of any transactions that the citizens under trusteeship do not have the right to fulfill on their own.

Trustees render their wards assistance in the realization of their rights and the fulfillment of their responsibilities, and also protect them from abuses on the part of third parties.


Additional Links and Resources


http://www.kenesh.kg/Content.aspx - The National Assembly


http://www.gov.kg/ - The government of Kyrgyzstan


www.cis-legal-reform.org Law Reform in Transition States


http://www.eurasianet.org/resource/kyrgyzstan/index.shtml - Eurasia net


http://eng.soros.kg/ - The Soros foundation in Kyrgyzstan


http://www.civilsoc.org//nisorgs/nislegal.htm - NIS law and human rights organizations



[1] This page is also available as a .pdf Document, and Word Document.

[2] Second Periodic Report (2004), U.N. Doc. CRC/C/104/Add.4, ¶9.

[3] Id., at ¶109.

[4] Id., at ¶129.

[5] Id., at ¶11.

[6] For more information, see  http://www.ombudsman.kg/. The main issues treated are related to other issues on children's rights but it seems there is no prohibition for children to complain of violation of rights according to Article 12 of the Convention.

[7] Second Periodic Report, supra note 1, at ¶205.

[8] NGO Report (2004), available at www.crin.org/docs/resources/treaties/crc.37/kyrgyzstan_ngo_report.doc, and also here, and also as .pdf Document, and also as Word Document.

[9] Id., at page 9.

[10] Id.

[11] Concluding observations report (2004), U.N. Doc. CRC/C/15/Add.244, ¶33.

[12] The Constitution, available at  http://www.kenesh.kg/Content.aspx?pid=178.

[13] The Convention on the Rights of the Child, available at http://www.unicef.org/magic/media/documents/CRC_kyrgyz_language_version.pdf.

[14] The Family Code (2002), available at http://www.cis-legal-reform.org/document.asp?id=6514 and also here, and also as .pdf Document, and also as Word Document.

[15] The Civil Code (1996), available at http://www.cis-legal-reform.org/document.asp?id=2893 and also here, and also as .pdf Document, and also as Word Document.

[16] Unofficial translation by a translator provided by the Jerome N. Frank Legal Services Organization.

[17] G.A. Res. 44/125, U.N. GAOR, 44th Session, Supp. No. 49, U.N. Doc. A/44/736 (1989), available at http://www.ohchr.org/english/law/crc.htm.

[18] Unofficial translation by a translator provided by the Jerome N. Frank Legal Services Organization.

[19] Unofficial translation by a translator provided by the Jerome N. Frank Legal Services Organization.



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