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Azerbaijan (Republic of)[1][print]

Last edited: October 2005

Summary and Analysis

 

The National Assembly (Milli Mejlis) of Azerbaijan ratified the Azerbaijani Republic's accession to the Convention on the Rights of the Child in decree No. 236 of June 21, 1992. The Convention entered into force for Azerbaijan on August 13, 1992.[2]

 

The Constitution of Azerbaijan provides for the primacy of international human rights over the appropriate constitutional provisions. It also states that international treaties will apply even if they contradict local legislation.[3] Thus, the Convention on the Rights of the Child de jure constitutes a part of the Azerbaijan legislative framework. However, it is still unclear if in practice people can apply the norms of the Convention directly and if Azeri courts will recognize such legal referencing.

 

According to the Family Code (2000) every child with capacity to form his own views has a right to express his opinion in court proceedings, but only from the age of 10 years old is the court obliged to consider his opinion. The Code stipulates situations that require the consent of a child of the age of 10. One example is article 145.3 that states that a child's views on the matter must be heard before he is placed with a foster family.  Children aged 10 or older may be placed with a foster family only with their consent.

 

There are no clear definitions and provisions on how these views and opinions of children should be handled and considered. Children over 10 years old may apply to the courts, although there are no known cases of this occurring. The judges considering cases involving children are not trained in the CRC and there is neither a specialized juvenile justice system nor juvenile judges in Azerbaijan.

 

According to the Law on the rights of the Child the State must ensure the protection of the rights of the child. The parents are the representatives of the child.

 

Article 5 of the Law on Commission on Minors and the Protection of the Rights of the Children stipulates that children are entitled to protection against any type of abuse or physical, inhuman and degrading treatment. The law establishes the local Commissions on Minors' Affairs and the Protection of the Rights. In accordance with article 114 of the Family Code, and in accordance of this law, the protection of children's rights and interests becomes a responsibility of the competent executive agency (the Commissions) in the event that the parents die, have their parental rights removed or restricted, and other similar situations.

 

The Commissions on Minors' Affairs and the Protection of the Rights operate on the municipal level and are considered a part of the local Executive Committees. The commissions have various responsibilities according to law but in practice they are under-staffed to enact all of them. The commissions consider cases of minors reported to them. Usually, only the severe cases will be discussed. The commissions can decide on alternative placement for the child in institutions and punishment for the parents. By law the commission can invite the child to appear in front of them during the decision meeting.

 

It is important to mention that the commissions take place as the child's representative and it is their responsibility to protect the child. According to NGO reports, these commissions do not seek the child's opinion due to lack of resources. Furthermore, there is no effective way to appeal the decisions of the commissions.[4]

 

A third possibility for the child to complain on infringement of his rights is through the Ombudsman for Human Rights, which is an independent body that every citizen can apply to.

 

There is no formal child protection system in Azerbaijan and no social work system. There is no network of social services dedicated to children who are victims of abuse and neglect. It seems that although in principle the legislation of Azerbaijan conforms to the major regulations of the Convention, the mechanisms and the financial support for implementation are missing, as well as the means for monitoring the implementation of the Convention.

 

The committee on the rights of the child has also commented in regard to Article 12 that further efforts must be undertaken to ensure that the general principles of the Convention, not only guide policy discussions and formulation and decision-making, but also are appropriately integrated into any judicial and administrative decisions and in the development and implementation of all projects, programs and services which have an impact on children.[5]

 

Sources of Law (In Order of Authority)

 

International law

 

UŞAQ HAQLARI KONVENSİYASI[6]

Maddə 12

1. İştirakçı dövlətlər bu baxışlarını formalaşdırmağa qadir olan uşağı həmin baxışları özünə aid bütün məsələlərlə əlaqədar azad ifadə etmək hüququ ilə təmin edirlər, həm də uşağın

baxışlarına onun yaşına və yetkinliyinə müvafiq sürətdə lazımi diqqət yetirilir.

2. Bu məqsədlə uşağa imkan verilir ki, ona aid hər hansı məhkəmə araşdırmasının və ya inzibati araşdırmanın jedişində ya bilavasitə, ya da nümayəndə, yaxud müvafiq orqan vasitəsilə onu milli qanunverijiliyin prosessual normalarında nəzərdə tutulan qaydada dinləsinlər.

Statutes

Rights of the Child Act of 19 May 1998[7]

ЗАКОН  АЗЕРБАЙДЖАНСКОЙ  РЕСПУБЛИКИ О  ПРАВАХ  РЕБЕНКА

Статья 4. Органы, объединения и организации, осуществляющие защиту прав ребенка

В  Азербайджанской  Республике  защиту  прав  ребенка   должны обеспечивать соответствующие органы исполнительной власти,  органы суда  и   прокуратуры,  муниципалитеты,  а  также  общественные объединения и профсоюзные организации.

Статья 7. Представители ребенка

Представителями  детей,  защищающими  их  права  и   интересы, являются  родители  ребенка,  а  также  лица, усыновившие ребенка, опекуны, попечители, администрация детских домов.

 

Family Code of the Azerbaijan Republic[8]

 

СТАТЬЯ 51. ПРАВО РЕБЕНКА НА ЗАЩИТУ

 

51.1. РЕБЕНОК ИМЕЕТ ПРАВО НА ЗАЩИТУ СВОИХ ПРАВ И ЗАКОННЫХ

ИНТЕРЕСОВ.

51.2. ЗАЩИТА ПРАВ И ЗАКОННЫХ ИНТЕРЕСОВ РЕБЕНКА

ОСУЩЕСТВЛЯЕТСЯ РОДИТЕЛЯМИ /ЗАМЕНЯЮЩИМИ ИХ ЛИЦАМИ/, А В СЛУЧАЯХ, ПРЕДУСМОТРЕННЫХ НАСТОЯЩИМ КОДЕКСОМ, - СООТВЕТСТВУЮЩИМ ОРГАНОМ ИСПОЛНИТЕЛЬНОЙ ВЛАСТИ И СУДОМ.

51.3. В СООТВЕТСТВИИ С ЗАКОНОДАТЕЛЬСТВОМ ЛИЦА, ПРИЗНАННЫЕ

ПОЛНОСТЬЮ ДЕЕСПОСОБНЫМИ ДО ДОСТИЖЕНИЯ СОВЕРШЕННОЛЕТИЯ,

САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНО ОСУЩЕСТВЛЯЮТ СВОИ ПРАВА И ОБЯЗАННОСТИ, В ТОМ

ЧИСЛЕ ПРАВО НА ЗАЩИТУ.

51.4. РЕБЕНОК ИМЕЕТ ПРАВО НА ЗАЩИТУ ОТ СЛУЧАЕВ ЗЛОУПОТРЕБЛЕНИЯ РОДИТЕЛЯМИ /ЗАМЕНЯЮЩИХ ИХ ЛИЦ/.

51.5. ПРИ НАРУШЕНИИ ПРАВ И ЗАКОННЫХ ИНТЕРЕСОВ РЕБЕНКА, В ТОМ

ЧИСЛЕ НЕВЫПОЛНЕНИИ РОДИТЕЛЯМИ /ОДНИМ ИЗ НИХ/ СВОИХ ОБЯЗАННОСТЕЙ ПО ОБУЧЕНИЮ, ВОСПИТАНИЮ РЕБЕНКА ИЛИ ЗЛОУПОТРЕБЛЕНИИ РОДИТЕЛЬСКИМИ ПРАВАМИ, РЕБЕНОК ДЛЯ ЗАЩИТЫ СВОИХ ИНТЕРЕСОВ ИМЕЕТ ПРАВО ОБРАТИТЬСЯ В СООТВЕТСТВУЮЩИЙ ОРГАН ИСПОЛНИТЕЛЬНОЙ ВЛАСТИ, А ПО ДОСТИЖЕНИИ 14 ЛЕТ - В СУД.

51.6. ДОЛЖНОСТНЫЕ ЛИЦА И ДРУГИЕ ГРАЖДАНЕ, ИНФОРМИРОВАННЫЕ О

ТОМ, ЧТО ЖИЗНЬ И ЗДОРОВЬЕ РЕБЕНКА НАХОДЯТСЯ В ОПАСНОСТИ, О

НАРУШЕНИИ ЕГО ПРАВ И ЗАКОННЫХ ИНТЕРЕСОВ, ОБЯЗАНЫ СООБЩИТЬ ОБ

ЭТОМ В СООТВЕТСТВУЮЩИЙ ОРГАН ИСПОЛНИТЕЛЬНОЙ ВЛАСТИ ПО МЕСТУ

ФАКТИЧЕСКОГО ПРЕБЫВАНИЯ РЕБЕНКА. ПОЛУЧИВ ПОДОБНУЮ ИНФОРМАЦИЮ, СООТВЕТСТВУЮЩИЙ ОРГАН ИСПОЛНИТЕЛЬНОЙ ВЛАСТИ ОБЯЗАН ПРИНЯТЬ НЕОБХОДИМЫЕ МЕРЫ ДЛЯ ЗАЩИТЫ ПРАВ И ЗАКОННЫХ ИНТЕРЕСОВ РЕБЕНКА.

СТАТЬЯ 52. ПРАВО РЕБЕНКА ВЫСКАЗЫВАТЬ СВОЕ МНЕНИЕ

 

РЕБЕНОК ПРИ РЕШЕНИИ ЛЮБОГО ВОПРОСА, ЗАТРАГИВАЮЩЕГО ЕГО

ИНТЕРЕСЫ В СЕМЬЕ, ИМЕЕТ ПРАВО ВЫСКАЗЫВАТЬ СВОЕ МНЕНИЕ, А ТАКЖЕ

БЫТЬ ВЫСЛУШАННЫМ В ХОДЕ СУДЕБНОГО РАССЛЕДОВАНИЯ И

АДМИНИСТРАТИВНЫХ РАЗБИРАТЕЛЬСТВ. МНЕНИЕ РЕБЕНКА, ДОСТИГШЕГО

10-ЛЕТНЕГО ВОЗРАСТА, ОБЯЗАТЕЛЬНО УЧИТЫВАЕТСЯ, ЗА ИСКЛЮЧЕНИЕМ

СЛУЧАЕВ, ПРОТИВОРЕЧАЩИХ ЕГО ИНТЕРЕСАМ. В СЛУЧАЯХ,

ПРЕДУСМОТРЕННЫХ НАСТОЯЩИМ КОДЕКСОМ, СУД ИЛИ ОРГАН ОПЕКИ И

ПОПЕЧИТЕЛЬСТВА МОГУТ ПРИНИМАТЬ РЕШЕНИЕ ТОЛЬКО С СОГЛАСИЯ

РЕБЕНКА, ДОСТИГШЕГО 10-ЛЕТНЕГО ВОЗРАСТА.

СТАТЬЯ 59. ПРАВА И ОБЯЗАННОСТИ РОДИТЕЛЕЙ В ОБЛАСТИ ЗАЩИТЫ ПРАВ И ИНТЕРЕСОВ ДЕТЕЙ

59.1. РОДИТЕЛИ ДОЛЖНЫ ЗАЩИЩАТЬ ПРАВА И ИНТЕРЕСЫ ДЕТЕЙ.

РОДИТЕЛИ, КАК ЗАКОННЫЕ ПРЕДСТАВИТЕЛИ СВОИХ ДЕТЕЙ, МОГУТ ЗАЩИЩАТЬ ИХ В СУДАХ, А ТАКЖЕ ЗАЩИЩАТЬ ИХ ПРАВА И ИНТЕРЕСЫ, СВЯЗАННЫЕ С ТЕМИ ИЛИ ИНЫМИ ФИЗИЧЕСКИМИ, ЮРИДИЧЕСКИМИ ЛИЦАМИ, НЕ ПОЛУЧАЯ ПОЛНОМОЧИЯ НА ЭТО.

59.2. В СЛУЧАЕ, ЕСЛИ БУДЕТ УСТАНОВЛЕНО ПРОТИВОРЕЧИЕ МЕЖДУ

ИНТЕРЕСАМИ РОДИТЕЛЕЙ И ДЕТЕЙ, СООТВЕТСТВУЮЩИЙ ОРГАН

ИСПОЛЕНИТЕЛЬНОЙ ВЛАСТИ ДОЛЖЕН НАЗНАЧИТЬ ПРЕДСТАВИТЕЛЯ ДЛЯ ЗАЩИТЫ ПРАВ И ИНТЕРЕСОВ ДЕТЕЙ.

Translation

 

International Law

Convention on the Rights of the Child[9]

 

Article 12

1. States Parties shall assure to the child who is capable of forming his or her own views the right to express those views freely in all matters affecting the child, the views of the child being given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child.

2. For this purpose, the child shall in particular be provided the opportunity to be heard in any judicial and administrative proceedings affecting the child, either directly, or through a representative or an appropriate body, in a manner consistent with the procedural rules of national law.

Statutes

Rights of the Child Act of 19 May 1998[10]

 

Article 4. Agencies, associations and the organizations for the protection of the rights of the child

The State must ensure the protection of the rights of the child and the protection of the rights of the child must be provided by the appropriate local authorities, courts, prosecutors, municipalities, and also public unions and professionals associations.

Article 7. The Representatives of the Child

The representatives of children, who protect their rights and interests, are the child's parents, and also persons who have adopted the child; guardians; trustees; and the administration (management, administrators) of orphan asylums.

 

Family Code of the Azerbaijan Republic[11]

 

PART 11: Rights of the child in the family

 

Section 51. Right of the Child to Protection

 

51.1. The child has the right to protection of his rights and legal interests.

51.2. The protection of the child's rights and legal interests is carried out by his parents / substituting persons, or, in cases stipulated in the present code, by the appropriate body (agency, department) of executive and judicial authority.

51.3. In accordance with legislation, persons recognized as fully capable before reaching legal age independently exercise their rights and responsibilities, including the right to protection.

51.4. A child has the right to protection from incidents of abuse by their parents / the persons substituting for them (substituting persons).

51.5. In cases of infringement of the child's rights and legal interests, including non-fulfillment by the parent or parents of their responsibilities for the child's education and upbringing or abuses of their parental rights, the child has the right to turn, for protection of his interests, to the appropriate body (agency, department) of executive authority, and, upon reaching 14 years of age, to the court.

51.6. Officials and other citizens informed about a danger to the life or health of the child, of an infringement of his rights and legal interests, are obliged to inform the appropriate body (agency, department) of executive authority located in the child's factual residence. Having received such information, the appropriate body (agency, department) of executive authority is obliged to take the necessary measures for the protection of the rights and legal interests of the child.

Section 52. The right of the child to express his opinion

In the resolution of any question implicating the child's interests in the family, the child has the right to express his opinions, and also to be heard in the course of judicial investigation and administrative trials. The opinion of the child who has reached 10 years of age must without fail (obligatorily, compulsorily) be taken into account, with the exception of cases contradicting his interests. In cases stipulated by the present code, the court or body of guardianship and trusteeship may make a decision only with the consent of the child who has reached 10 years of age.

Section 59. Rights and responsibilities of parents in the realm of protection of the rights and interests of children

59.1. Parents must protect the rights and interests of their children. Parents, as the legal representatives of their children, may protect them in court, and also protect their rights and interests in connection with these or other physical or judicial persons, without obtaining special permission (authority, power) for this.

59.2. If a contradiction between the interests of the parents and children is established, the corresponding body of executive authority appoints a representative for the protection of the rights and interests of the children.

 

Local Contact information

 

Dr.Nabil Seyidov, National Coordinator of NGO Alliance and General Secretary of NGO-UNICEF Regional Network for Children in CEE,CIS and Baltic States

Phone: 994-12-493-21-42

Mobile: 994-50-349-29-48

Email: relfuture@azdata.net or nzseidov@yahoo.com 

Web: www.ngoalliance.net

Web: www.regionalnetworkforchildren.org

 

Additional Links:

www.cis-legal-reform.org law reform in transition states

http://mitglied.lycos.de/hrca/main.htm - the human rights center of Azerbaijan

http://humanrights-az.org/contents.php?cid=133

www.meclis.gov.az the Milli Mejlis (Parliament)

www.president.az the President

http://www.azerweb.com/en - news on Azerbaijan

 


Endnotes

[1] This page is also available as a .pdf Document, and Word Document.

[2] Second Periodic Report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, CRC/C/83/Add.13, available  here, and also as .pdf Document, and also as Word Document.

[3] The Constitution of Azerbaijan, Article 12 (II) and Article 151.

[4] Alternative NGO report by the AZERBAIJAN NGO ALLIANCE FOR CHILDREN'S RIGHTS, available here, and also as .pdf Document, and also as Word Document.

[5] Concluding observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child, Azerbaijan. 17/06/97, CRC/C/15/Add.77, available  here, and also as .pdf Document, and also as Word Document.

[6] The Convention on the Rights of the Child, available at http://www.unicef.org/magic/media/documents/CRC_azeri_language_version.pdf

[7] Unofficial translation, available at http://mitglied.lycos.de/hrca/main.htm

[8] Unofficial translation, available at http://www.cis-legal-reform.org/document.asp?id=2748

[9] G.A. Res. 44/125, U.N. GAOR, 44th Session, Supp. No. 49, U.N. Doc. A/44/736 (1989), available at http://www.ohchr.org/english/law/crc.htm.

[10] Unofficial translation by a translator provided by the Jerome N. Frank Legal Services Organization. 

[11] Unofficial translation by a translator provided by the Jerome N. Frank Legal Services Organization.

 

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