| Home|Acknowledgments |About Us |Contact Us |Resources |Jurisdiction Research |Research Summary |Terms of Use |

 

 

 

Belarus[1][print]

Last edited: November 2005

 

Summary and Analysis

 

In Belarus, the issue of child protection will typically be solved either through semi-formal measures taken by local social agencies (“organy opeki i popechitelstva”) or through parental rights termination proceedings in civil courts. The legal foundation for it is Article 80 of the Family Code of Belarus, which provides parental rights of certain abusive parents may be terminated or limited. Both or one of the parents may lose their parental rights as the result as of the failure to perform basic duties of a parent, chronic misuse of parental rights, abandonment of the child, chronic substance abuse, physical assault on the child or the other spouse, or cruel treatment of the child.

According to Article 189 of the Family Code, the child has the right to appeal to courts when his interests are violated (such as when his parents misuse their parental authority) after the age of 14, or to local social agencies (whose participation in such proceedings is mandatory) dealing with child protection before that age. The issue of child protection will typically be solved either through semi-formal measures taken by local social agencies or through parental rights termination proceedings in civil courts. Children do not have the right for a court-appointed lawyer, but may apply for help to a local NGO (which are scarce). The social agencies charges with child protective work differ to the extent of their requirements they place on the social workers.  The education required to be a social worker is not standardized.

 

Sources of Law (In Order of Authority)

 

Original Text

 

Statutes

 

The Family Code of Belarus[2]

 

Статья  183. Органы,  осуществляющие  защиту   прав и интересов

Детей.

 

Права  детей  и  их  защита  обеспечиваются  органами  опеки  и

попечительства,      комиссиями      (инспекциями)      по     делам

несовершеннолетних,   прокуратурой   и   судом,   которые   в  своей

деятельности руководствуются приоритетом защиты интересов детей.

Особенности  защиты  прав  и  интересов  детей,  а также статус

органов, обеспечивающих их защиту от имени государства, определяются

настоящим  Кодексом  и  другими  актами  законодательства Республики

Беларусь.

 

Статья 189. Право на защиту

 

     Каждый  ребенок  имеет  право на защиту своей личности, чести и

достоинства  от  любых  видов эксплуатации и насилия: экономических,

сексуальных,    политических,   духовных,   моральных,   физических,

психологических.

     Ребенок  вправе  обратиться за защитой своих прав и интересов в

органы опеки и попечительства, прокуратуру, а с четырнадцати лет - и

в  суд,  а  также  осуществлять  защиту прав и интересов через своих

законных представителей.

 

Статья 80. Лишение родительских прав

     …Лишение   родительских  прав  производится  только  в  судебном

порядке.   Дела   о  лишении  родительских  прав  рассматриваются  с

обязательным  участием  прокурора  и  представителя  органа  опеки и

попечительства.

 

Статья   86. Участие   органов    опеки   и   попечительства  в

                  рассмотрении споров, связанных с воспитанием детей

 

     При рассмотрении судом споров, связанных с воспитанием детей, к

участию в деле должен быть привлечен орган опеки и попечительства.

     Судебное разбирательство дел по спорам, связанным с воспитанием

ребенка,  назначается  только  после  получения  от  органа  опеки и

попечительства  заключения по существу рассматриваемого спора вместе

с  документами,  отражающими  выявленные  обследованием  фактические

обстоятельства дела.

     Свое несогласие с заключением органа опеки и попечительства суд

обязан мотивировать.

 

The Decree of the Ministers' Council of the Republic of Belarus of 10-28-1999, # 1676 Ob organah opeki I popechitelstva.[3]

 

8.8  Управления  (отделы)  образования  местных  исполнительных и

распорядительных органов как органы, осуществляющие функции по опеке

и попечительству… дают  заключения по делам о лишении родительских прав.

 

Translation[4]

 

Statutes

 

The Family Code of Belarus as of 7-09-1999 (# 278-3).

 

Article 183.   Official government agencies charged with protection of children's rights and interests.

Children's rights and their protection are guaranteed and provided by the official guardians and care giving agencies, by the committee (social workers) on minor's affairs, by the state investigators and the court, which in their proceedings must abide by the best interests of a child.  The legal Code and other laws of the Republic of Belarus determine specific details of the children's protection rights and interests as well as the status of guardianship granted to agents that provide legal protection from the government's side. 

 

Article 189. The right to protection.

 

Every child has the right to have his persona, honor and dignity protected from any form of exploitation and violence: economical, sexual, political, spiritual, moral, physiological or psychological.

The child has the right to apply for protection of his/her rights and interests to the guardianship and social service agencies or to the state investigators' offices, and after the age of 14- to courts. The child also has the right to protect his rights and interests through his legal representatives.

 

Article 80. Termination of parental rights.

…Parental rights may be terminated after a court hearing and by a court order only. Such parental rights proceedings must include a state prosecutor and a representative of the social services agent or the Bodies of Guardianship.

 

Article 86.   Participation of the Social Service Agencies in hearings concerned with the child's care giving and guardianship disputes.

 

Social Services agencies concerned with minor's affairs must participate in any court proceeding involving the child's care giving and guardianship disputes.

A court hearing will be scheduled only after a social service agency (upon a careful examination) issues an expert recommendation alongside with all factual evidence and documents concerned with the child's care giving and guardianship dispute. 

 

Courts must explain and provide their reasoning for any decision contradicting the recommendation of the social service agency. 

 

Legal statutes pertaining to Article 12 of the CRC

 

No special provisions, but under the Family Code, the views of the child shall be taken into consideration in the following cases:

 

When the family name of a minor who has reached the age of 10 is to be changed, that minor's consent must invariably be obtained by the tutelage and guardianship authorities (art. 61);

 

The consent of a minor who has reached the age of 10 is necessary for adoption (art. 118);

 

An adopted child who has reached the age of 10 may only be given a family name and patronymic and a new first name with his or her own consent (art. 121);

 

Where possible, the wishes of a child placed in care must be taken into consideration in the nomination of a tutor or guardian (art. 154).

 

The Decree of the Ministers' Council of the Republic of Belarus of 10-28-1999, # 1676 On the Bodies of Guardianship.

 

8.8   The Board (agency) of Education from local executive and legislative branches of the Government, acting as care giving and guardianship agencies, provide expert statements, i.e. a recommendation, upon the proceedings of the dispute of the termination of parental rights.

 

Local Contact Information

 

Informacionyi Center Po Pravam Rebenka I Cheloveka

(ICPRC) (Information Center on Children and Human Rights Education).

19, Kutuzova Street, R-203

ICCHRE

231 000 Smorgon
Belarus

Phone: 00 375 01592 33129
Fax: 00 375 01592 33890
Contact person: Vladimir Kalinin 

 



Endnotes

[1] This page is also available as a .pdf Document, and Word Document.

[2] The Family Code of Belarus as of 7-09-1999 (# 278-3), available at http://pravo.kulichki.com/vip/bris/index.htm.

[3] The Decree of the Ministers' Council of the Republic of Belarus of 10-28-1999, # 1676

[4] Unofficial translation by Julia Kolmakova.

 

Representing Children Worldwide | Copyright 2005 Yale Law School |All Rights Reserved